برچسبها: نکات گرامری ریز انگلیسی
برچسبها: گرامر انگلیسی, گرامرused to, گرامر انگلیسی used to, ساختار گرامر used to
برده میشوند و به معنی "مگه نه؟" یا "درسته؟" هستند.
این سوالات دارای یک فعل کمکی و ضمیر فاعلی هستند.
اگه جمله خبری ما مثبت باشه، سوال ضمیمه را به صورت منفی می آوریم.
اگه جمله خبری ما منفی باشه،سوال ضمیمه را به صورت مثبت می آوریم.
بین جمله خبری و سوالی از ویرگول استفاده می کنیم.
?he is old ,isn`t he
برچسبها: گرامر سوالات ضمیمه تاکیدی, گرامر انگلیسی, دنیای زبان انگلیسی, دستورزبان سوالات ضمیمه تاکیدی, tags questions grammar
اگرچه گاهی از wishبه جای hope استفاده میشه اما عمدتا برای بیان افسوس،پشیمانی و حسرت بکارمیره.
wish در باره موقعیت های غیرواقعی استفاده میشه و بنابراین جمله اصلی درهرزمانی که باشه جمله
دارای wish یک زمان به عقب تر میره.
مثلا اگر درباره زمان حال است بعد از اضافه کردن wish آن را به گذشته ساده تبدیل می کنیم:
!My wife isn`t beautiful= I wish I had a beautiful wife
کاش یه زن خوشگل داشتم! (اما ندارم)
در این جا همانطور که می بینید اگر چه که فعل را به گذشته تبدیل کردیم ولی معنی جمله حال است.
نویسنده: امیرحسین معدن دار
برچسبها: گرامر انگلیسی, آموزش گرامر انگلیسی, گرامر wish انگلیسی
On the way or in the way
When we use On the way
When we use in the way
There are some obstcle in my way maens f.e
There is a chair in my way.
I am bettwen my home and my school
i am on the way
What kind of word؟
There ara 8 different kind of words in english.
They are called word classes or parts of speech
Farther and Further
Don't say: Turn the page for farther instructions
Say: Turn the page for further instructions
Note: use further to mean greater distance and more of something. We only use farther for distances: I live a bit farther away than you. Don't use it to mean more. We use further for both meanings in modern English
The conditional progressive refers to an action that might take place
Would + be + present participle
Present participle = Verb + ing (e.g. playing, writing, driving
I would be traveling around the world
Would you be watching the match?
I wouldn't be sleeping all day long?
Conditional progressive is used for actions that might take place and puts emphasis on the course of an action. It is used in the main clause of conditional sentences type 2
- If he had a lot of money, he would be traveling around the world
- If I were free, I would be watching the movie
- If the music were better, everybody would be dancing
- I would be having a good time if I met my friends
Conditional perfect is an English grammatical tense. It relates an action that someone would have done
would + have + past participle
I would have traveled around the world
Would you have traveled around the world?
I wouldn't have stayed in my hometown
- Conditional perfect is used for something that might have happened in the past
- It is also used in the main clause of conditional sentences type in type III
- She would have met him if she had come earlier
- You would have got more money, if you had worked harder
- He would have passed the test, if he had studied
- We would have arrived on time, if we had run faster
کاربرد let ، allow و permit
allow و permit
این دو کلمه معنای مشابه و کاربرد یکسانی دارند. permit رسمیتر است. به دنبال هر دو فعل میتوان مفعول ومصدر را بکار برد.
وقتی که مفعول شخصی نداشته باشیم از ing form استفاده میکنیم:
We do not allow / permit smoking in the kitchen.
ساختارهای مجهولی هم با این دو فعل رایجند: (هم فاعل شخصی هم gerund)
People are not allowed / permitted to...
در جملات معلوم (active)، فاعل به عامل يا کننده عمل فعل دلالت دارد. در واقع ما از افعال معلوم براي بيان اينکه فاعل چه کاري را انجام دهد استفاده ميکنيم. به اين مثالها توجه کنيد:
The dog chased the cat. (سگ گربه را دنبال کرد)
My father built this house in 1960. (پدرم اين خانه را در سال 1960 ساخت)
ولي جملات مجهول (passive) به ما اين اجازه را ميدهند که کسي يا چيزي را که کننده يا انجام دهنده عملي نيست (غير عامل) در جاي فاعل قرار دهيم. در واقع از افعال مجهول براي بيان اينکه چه عملي بر روي فاعل اتفاق ميافتد، استفاده ميشود:
برچسبها: گرامر, مفید, کارآمد, جملات مجهول و معلوم, مجهول
اگه میخواهید درباره عقاید خود صحبت کنید, جملات زیر خیلی بدردتون میخوره:
Asking someone for their opinion
-What do you think of his new book?
-How do you feel about working with the others?
-What are your feelings (pl ) about the change in the timetable?
-What's your honest opinion of that painting?
Giving your opinion
-I think Charles had the best idea.
-I don't think he knew very much about the subject.
-I don't think it's a good idea. [NOT
I think it's not a good idea]
-Personally, I think his first book is terrible.
-In my opinion we should sell the old car and buy a new one.
-As far as I'm concerned, the whole evening was a waste of time.
دو عبارت Personally و As far as I concerned بطور معمول بصورت غیر رسمی بکار میرود.
عبارت As far as I'm concerned به معنی "تا جایی که به من مربوط میشود" بکار میرود.
Giving the opinion of others
-According to one of the journalists on television, the Prime Minister knew nothing about it.
-The newspaper says that Prime Minister knew weeks ago.
Agreeing with someone
-A: I think we should concentrate on this one project.
-B: Yes, it's better to do one thing well than two things badly.
Yes, I agree (with you)
Yes, I think you're right
Disagreeing with someone
-Yes, that's true, but I'm not sure that ...
-Yes, you could be right, but don't forget ......
-Yes, perhaps/maybe/possibly, but don't you think.....
اگه کاملا" مخالفید میتونید اینجوری بگید:
-I'm afraid I totally disagree (with you)
اما اگه کمی یا با قسمتی از چیزی مخالفید:
Yes, I partly agree (with you), but.... (تا حدی)
I agree to some extent / a certain extent, but.... (تا اندازه ای یا حدی مشخص)
پول در آوردن
پیش بینی کردن
Make a prediction
Make a suggestion
Make a decision
Make fun of
Make a war
درد سر درست کردن
Make a speech
سر و صدا کردن
Make a noise
Make a peace
Make an excuse
مرتب کردن تخت
Make the bed
The Coast is usually a long stretch of land next to the sea,for example the part of a country that is next to the sea:we live on the coast
The Shore is the land at the edge of the sea or a lake:we camped on the north shore of lake Michigan. The survivors swam to shore
The Beach is the part of the shore which is often covered with sand and is where people go to enjoy themselves or to relax:We went for a walk along the beach. She took the kids to the beach for the day
In BrE, the Seaside is sometimes used to mean an area on the Coast where people go on holiday/vacation, but Sea is now much more common for this. In both BrE and AmESeaside can be used in front of a noun:a seaside resort
Cackle to laugh in a loud, unpleasant way, especially in a high voice
Chuckle to laugh quietly, especially because you are thinking abuot something funny
Giggle to laugh in a silly way because you are amused, embarrassed or nervous
Guffaw to laugh noisily
Roar to laugh very loudly
Singger/Snicker to laugh in a quiet unpleasant way, especially at something rude or at someone's problems or mistakes
Titter to laugh quietly, especially in a nervous or embarrassed way
You can also be convulsed with laughter or dissolve into laughter when you find something very funny. In BrE people also shriek with laughter or howl with laughter
Wear/ Carry / Have on
You wear clothes, including gloves, scarves, belts, watches and glasses, and also perfume on your skin: Do you have to wear a suit for work? . I've been wearing glasses for ten years. You can also say havesomething on: She had on some very unusual errrings . He ran outside without any shoes on
You carry objects with you when you go somewhere, especially in your hands or arms: He wasn't wearing his raincoat, he was carring it over his arm . She always carries an umbrella in her briefcase
Neither ……. Nor , either……. or
چنانچه بعد از کلمه either از or استفاده شود هر دو کلمه معادل ( یا .... یا ) در زبان فارسی است.
I want either this book or that book.
من یا این کتاب را می خواهم یا آن کتاب را
چنانچه بعد از کلمه neither از nor استفاده گردد هر دو کلمه معادل ( نه ...نه ) در زبان فارسی است . در این حالت جمله مفهوم منفی دارد و احتیاجی به کلمه not نمی باشد.
I want neither this nor that.
من نه این را می خواهم نه آنرا
کلمات (neither … or) و (neither …. Nor) در انگلیسی جزء حروف ربط محسوب شده یعنی دو جمله را تبدیل به یک جمله می نمایند. مثال:
I don’t like this
I don’t like that
( I like neither this nor that)
فعلی که بعد از آنها به کار می روند تابع اسم یا ضمیری است که بعد از nor و یا or دیده می شود . مثال:
Neither Ali nor Bahram goes there on Friday.
نه علی و نه بهرام هیچکدام روزهای جمعه به آنجا نمی روند.
Neither girls nor William is to blame.
نه دخترها و نه ویلیام هیچکدام نباید سرزنش شوند.
Eeither Ahmad and I am blame.
یا احمد و یا من باید سرزنش شویم.
پسوندها در زبان انگلیسی حروفی هستند که به لغات افزوده می شوند تا کلمات جدیدی ساخته شوند.
صفت = ful + اسم
colour + ful = colourful smoking رنگی
power + ful = powerful smoking قدرتمند
use + ful = useful smoking مفید
صفت = ous + اسم
fame + ous = famous smoking مشهور
danger + ous = dangerous smoking خطرناک
mystery + ous = mysterious smoking مرموز
صفت منفی = less + اسم
care + less = careless smoking بی دقت
use + less = useless smoking بی فایده
hope + less = hopeless smoking نا امید
اسم= ship + اسم
friend + ship = friendship smoking دوستی
relation + ship = relationship smoking رابطه
man + ship = manship smoking انسانی
صفت = y + اسم
rain + y = rainy smoking بارانی
sun + y = sunny smoking آفتابی
water + y = watery smoking آبکی
قید حالت = ly + صفت
bright + ly = brightly smoking به روشنی
happy + ly = happily smoking با خوشحالی
sad + ly = sadly smoking با ناراحتی
صفت = ly + اسم
friend + ly = friendly smoking دوستانه
day + ly = daily smoking روزانه
cost + ly = costly smoking قیمتی
فعل= en + صفت
short + en = shorten smoking کوتاه کردن
sharp + en = sharpen smoking تیز کردن
weak + en = weaken smoking ضعیف کردن
صفت = al + اسم
nature + al = natural smoking طبیعی
person + al = personal smoking شخصی
univere + al = universal smoking جهانی
اسم = ness + صفت
good + ness = goodness smoking خوبی
weak + ness = weakness smoking ضعف
busy + ness = business smoking شغل
صفت = en + اسم
gold + en = golden smoking طلایی
wood + en = wooden smoking چوبی
wool + en = woolen smoking پشمی
اسم = th + صفت
Warm + th = warmth smoking گرما
hong + th = length smoking درازا
wide + th = width smoking پهنا
اسم = tion + فعل
explain + tion = explanation smoking توضیح
direct + tion = direction smoking جهت
migrate + tion = migration smoking مهاجرت
اسم = al + فعل
arrive + al = arrival smoking ورود
deny + al = denial smoking انکار
refuse + al = refusal smoking امتناع
اسم = ence /ance + فعل
exist + ence = existence smoking وجود
guide + ance = guidance smoking راهنمایی
refer + ence = reference smoking مرجع
اسم = ment + فعل
agree + ment = agreement smoking توافق
move + ment = movement smoking حرکت
punish + ment = punishment smoking مجازات
اسم = ing + فعل
drive + ing = driving smoking رانندگی
smoke + ing = smoking smoking سیگار
run + ing = running white line دو
صفت فاعلی = ing + فعل
bore + ing = boring خسته کننده
interest + ing = interesting whiteline جالب
surprise + ing = surprising تعجب آور
اسم فاعل = er + فعل
play + er = player white line بازیکن
teach + er = teacher white line = مدرس
write + er = writer white line نویسنده
صفت مفعولی = ed + فعل
confuse + ed = confused white line گیج شده
excite + ed =excited white line هیجان زده
shock + ed = shocked white line تکان خورده
یکی از کاربردهای مهم help برای وقتیه که بگیم ترک کردن کاری یا انجام ندادن کاری خیلی سخته. و کاربردش به این شکله: sb can’t help sth یا sb can’t help doing sth
A: you must cut down on candy. You’re putting on weight
B: I know but I can’t help it. I have a sweet tooth
A: تو باید کمتر شیرینی بخوری. داری چاق میشیا.
B: میدونم اما “دست خودم نیست”. من شیرینی خورم.
نکته: have a sweet tooth یعنی به خوردن شیرینی جات علاقه ی زیادی
داشتن. واژه ی chocoholic یا همون chocaholic هم اسمه و اشاره داره به کسی
که خیلی به شکلات علاقه داره.
پسوند aholic هم به انتهای اسم ها می چسبه و از اون ها برای توصیف افرادی بکار می برن که در انجام دادن اون کار ها خیلی افراطی ان. مثلا workaholic یعنی کسی که مدام کار میکنه.
پس I can’t help it/doing it یعنی “دست خودم نیست” یا “نمیتونم جلوی خودمو بگیرم” (I can’t help eating Fesenjan!: موقع خوردن فسنجون نمیتونم جلوی خودمو بگیرم)
مثال: I burst out laughing! I couldn’t help myself
“داشتم از خنده میمردم (روده بر شده بودم). نمیتونستم جلوی خودمو بگیرم.
* it can’t be helped هم یعنی “کاریش نمیشه کرد – nothing can be done about it” ، “چاره ای نیست”
Hamed: hey ma nigga, what’s gotten into you? Why so blue?
Omid: this morning, an officer ticketed me 100 bucks for speeding then pulled my license and towed the car.
Hamed: too bad! It can’t be helped. Better not to dwell on it any longer. Everything’s going to be just fine.
Omid: but I don’t think so!
Hamed: why not! Look, my uncle’s an influential person. He has a lot of pull with the cops and he can pull a little string for you! So don’t sweat it!
حامد: هی رفیق ، چته؟ چرا انقدر تو همی؟
امید: امروز صب ، یه پلیس منو به خاطر سرعت غیر مجاز صد دلار جریمه کرد بعدشم گواهینامه مو گرفت و ماشینمم رو تا پارکینگ بوکسور کرد.
حامد: چه بد! کاریش نمیشه کرد. بهتره که دیگه ذهنتو باهاش مشغول نکنی. همه چی مرتب میشه.
امید: ولی من اینطور فکر نمیکنم.
حامد: چرا که نه! ببین ، عموی من ادم با نفوذیه. اون کلی نفوذ تو اداره ی پلیس داره. می تونه واست کمی پارتی بازی کنه. پس خیالت تخت!
۱- what’s gotten into you یه سوال خیلی رایج تو محاوره اس و برای وقتیه که کسی ترسیده یا ناراحته یا در کل داره رفتار غیر عادی از خودش نشون میده و معنیش هم میشه همون “چته؟”
۲- why so blue: blue تو محاوره یعنی depress ، ناراحت. Why so blue هم یعنی چرا انقدر دپی؟
۳- pull sb’s license: تو محاوره ی امریکایی یعنی revoke sb’s license یعنی گواهینامه کسی رو ضبط و اعمال قانون!! کردن
۴- dwell on: اصطلاح dwell on یعنی مدام درباره ی اتفاق بدی که در گذشته افتاده ، فکر کردن. البته حرف زدن هم میشه. یعنی هی بگی که چرا فلان شد یا چرا فلان کارو نکردم. یه عبارتی که خیلی با این اصطلاح شنیده میشه اینه: dwell on the past یعنی غم اتفاق گذشته رو خوردن یا اتفاق بدی (که قبلا افتاده) فکر کسی رو مشغول کردن. don’t dwell on the past یعنی فکرتو به خاطر اتفاق بدی که افتاده ، مشغول نکن.
۵- pull: تو محاوره یعنی influence یعنی “نفوذ ، تسلط داشتن (بر شخصی)”
We use “had better” plus the infinitive without “to” to give advice. Although “had” is the past form of “have”, we use “had better” to give advice about the present or future
- You'd better tell her everything
- I'd better get back to work
- We'd better meet early
- The negative form is “had better not
- You'd better not say anything
- I'd better not come
- We'd better not miss the start of his presentation
"to lose" is like when you wake up in the morning and you can't find your keys... you have lost them, and so you walk around the house trying to find them so that you aren't late...
"to miss" is like when you broke up with your significant other and you are kind of sad about it still... you miss that person, and feel that something is missing in your life. It can also be like when you are aiming at a target
چند شيء( يا افرادي) كاملا از هم مجزا و مشخص قرار گرفته باشند .
.our house is between the wood , the river and the village
خانه ما بين جنگل ، رودخانه و روستا قرار گرفته است.
اگر فرد يا چيزي ميان گروهي از مردم يا اشياء قرار داشته باشد كه نتوان
آنها را از هم مجزا ديد بايد از كلمه among استفاده كرد.
.His house is hidden among the trees
خانه او بين درختها استتار شده است .
.she was standing between Alice and Mary
او بين آليس و مري ايستاده است .
.She was standing among a crowd of children
او ميان اجتماعي از بچه ها ايستاده است.
2- ما زماني از between استفاده مي كنيم كه بخواهيم بگوييم اشياء يا
دسته اي از اشياء در دو طرف شيء مورد نظر قرار گرفته اند.
a little valley between high mountains
روستاي كوچكي بين كوههاي بلند
.I saw something between the wheels of the car
من چيزي را بين چرخهاي ماشين ديدم.
3- اگر بعد از افعال (divide = تقسيم كردن) و ( share = قسمت كردن) ،
اسم مفرد بيايد بايد از كلمه between استفاده كرد و اگر اسم جمع بيايد
ميتوان هم از كلمه among استفاده نمود و هم از between .
He divided his money between his wife ,his daughter and his sister
او پولش را بين همسر ، دختر و خواهرش تقسيم كرد.
.I shared the food between / among all my friends
من غذا را بين همه دوستانم تقسيم كردم.
A crowd of people
A pair of shoes
A ball of string
Abar of chocolate
A pile of books
A row of houses
A bundle of news papers
A drop of water
A lump of coal
A piece of pizza
A bunch of flowers
A queue of people
شاید برای شما هم پیش آمده باشد که گاهی اوقات در ترجمه کتاب داستان های انگلیسی فعل هایی
شمارا گیج کرده باشند که از یک جزء معنادار و یک جزء بی معنی تشکیل شده باشندر فعل دو بخشی را اشتبا
ه معنی کنید ممکن است معنی جمله دگرگون شود من هنگامی که
بااین مشکل روبه رو شدم به کتاب اصطلاحات روزانه انگلیسی رجوع کردم وحدود صد فعل دو بخشی
یافتم باذکرمثال ازاین قبیل فعل ها مانند:workout
Verb Meaning Example ask someone out invite on a date Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie. ask around ask many people the same question I asked around but nobody has seen my wallet. add up to something equal Your purchases add up to $205.32. back something up reverse You'll have to back up your car so that I can get out. back someone up support My wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job. blow up explode The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence. blow something up add air We have to blow 50 balloons up for the party. break down stop functioning (vehicle, machine) Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm. break down get upset The woman broke down when the police told her that her son had died. break something down divide into smaller parts Our teacher broke the final project down into three separate parts. break in force entry to a building Somebody broke in last night and stole our stereo. break into something enter forcibly The firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children. break something in wear something a few times so that it doesn't look/feel new I need to break these shoes in before we run next week. break in interrupt The TV station broke in to report the news of the president's death. break up end a relationship My boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America. break up start laughing (informal) The kids just broke up as soon as the clown started talking. break out escape The prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren't looking. break out in something develop a skin condition I broke out in a rash after our camping trip. bring someone down make unhappy This sad music is bringing me down. bring someone up raise a child My grandparents brought me up after my parents died. bring something up start talking about a subject My mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports. bring something up vomit He drank so much that he brought his dinner up in the toilet. call around phone many different places/people We called around but we weren't able to find the car part we needed. call someone back return a phone call I called the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend. call something off cancel Jason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his fiancé. call on someone ask for an answer or opinion The professor called on me for question 1. call on someone visit someone We called on you last night but you weren't home. call someone up phone Give me your phone number and I will call you up when we are in town. calm down relax after being angry You are still mad. You need to calm down before you drive the car. not care for someone/something not like (formal) I don't care for his behaviour. catch up get to the same point as someone else You'll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty. check in arrive and register at a hotel or airport We will get the hotel keys when we check in. check out leave a hotel You have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM. check someone/something out look at carefully, investigate The company checks out all new employees. check out someone/something look at (informal) Check out the crazy hair on that guy! cheer up become happier She cheered up when she heard the good news. cheer someone up make happier I brought you some flowers to cheer you up. chip in help If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon. clean something up tidy, clean Please clean up your bedroom before you go outside. come across something find unexpectedly I came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet. come apart separate The top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough. come down with something become sick My nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend. come forward volunteer for a task or to give evidence The woman came forward with her husband's finger prints. come from somewhere originate in The art of origami comes from Asia. count on someone/something rely on I am counting on you to make dinner while I am out. cross something out draw a line through Please cross out your old address and write your new one. cut back on something consume less My doctor wants me to cut back on sweets and fatty foods. cut something down make something fall to the ground We had to cut the old tree in our yard down after the storm. cut in interrupt Your father cut in while I was dancing with your uncle. cut in pull in too closely in front of another vehicle The bus driver got angry when that car cut in. cut in start operating (of an engine or electrical device) The air conditioner cuts in when the temperature gets to 22°C. cut something off remove with something sharp The doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured. cut something off stop providing The phone company cut off our phone because we didn't pay the bill. cut someone off take out of a will My grandparents cut my father off when he remarried. cut something out remove part of something (usually with scissors and paper) I cut this ad out of the newspaper. do someone/something over beat up, ransack (Br.E., informal) He's lucky to be alive. His shop was done over by a street gang. do something over do again (N.Amer.) My teacher wants me to do my essay over because she doesn't like my topic. do away with something discard It's time to do away with all of these old tax records. do something up fasten, close Do your coat up before you go outside. It's snowing! dress up wear nice clothing It's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress up. drop back move back in a position/group Andrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike. drop in/by/over come without an appointment I might drop in/by/over for tea some time this week. drop someone/something off take someone/something somewhere and leave them/it there I have to drop my sister off at work before I come over. drop out quit a class, school etc I dropped out of Science because it was too difficult. eat out eat at a restaurant I don't feel like cooking tonight. Let's eat out. end up eventually reach/do/decide We ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre. fall apart break into pieces My new dress fell apart in the washing machine. fall down fall to the ground The picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning. fall out separate from an interior The money must have fallen out of my pocket. fall out (of hair, teeth) become loose and unattached His hair started to fall out when he was only 35. figure something out understand, find the answer I need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room. fill something in to write information in blanks (Br.E.) Please fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number. fill something out to write information in blanks (N.Amer.) The form must be filled out in capital letters. fill something up fill to the top I always fill the water jug up when it is empty. find out discover We don't know where he lives. How can we find out? find something out discover We tried to keep the time of the party a secret, but Samantha found it out. get something across/over communicate, make understandable I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn't listen. get along/on like each other I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on. get around have mobility My grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair. get away go on a vacation We worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week. get away with something do without being noticed or punished Jason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests. get back return We got back from our vacation last week. get something back receive something you had before Liz finally got her Science notes back from my room-mate. get back at someone retaliate, take revenge My sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat. get back into something become interested in something again I finally got back into my novel and finished it. get on something step onto a vehicle We're going to freeze out here if you don't let us get on the bus. get over something recover from an illness, loss, difficulty I just got over the flu and now my sister has it. get over something overcome a problem The company will have to close if it can't get over the new regulations. get round to something finally find time to do (N.Amer.: get around to something) I don't know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards. get together meet (usually for social reasons) Let's get together for a BBQ this weekend. get up get out of bed I got up early today to study for my exam. get up stand You should get up and give the elderly man your seat. give someone away reveal hidden information about someone His wife gave him away to the police. give someone away take the bride to the altar My father gave me away at my wedding. give something away ruin a secret My little sister gave the surprise party away by accident. give something away give something to someone for free The library was giving away old books on Friday. give something back return a borrowed item I have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game. give in reluctantly stop fighting or arguing My boyfriend didn't want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in. give something out give to many people (usually at no cost) They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store. give something up quit a habit I am giving up smoking as of January 1st. give up stop trying My maths homework was too difficult so I gave up. go after someone follow someone My brother tried to go after the thief in his car. go after something try to achieve something I went after my dream and now I am a published writer. go against someone compete, oppose We are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight. go ahead start, proceed Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold. go back return to a place I have to go back home and get my lunch. go out leave home to go on a social event We're going out for dinner tonight. go out with someone date Jesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter. go over something review Please go over your answers before you submit your test. go over visit someone nearby I haven't seen Tina for a long time. I think I'll go over for an hour or two. go without something suffer lack or deprivation When I was young, we went without winter boots. grow apart stop being friends over time My best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools. grow back regrow My roses grew back this summer. grow up become an adult When Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman. grow out of something get too big for Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones. grow into something grow big enough to fit This bike is too big for him now, but he should grow into it by next year. hand something down give something used to someone else I handed my old comic books down to my little cousin. hand something in submit I have to hand in my essay by Friday. hand something out to distribute to a group of people We will hand out the invitations at the door. hand something over give (usually unwillingly) The police asked the man to hand over his wallet and his weapons. hang in stay positive (N.Amer., informal) Hang in there. I'm sure you'll find a job very soon. hang on wait a short time (informal) Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes! hang out spend time relaxing (informal) Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place. hang up end a phone call He didn't say goodbye before he hung up. hold someone/something back prevent from doing/going I had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park. hold something back hide an emotion Jamie held back his tears at his grandfather's funeral. hold on wait a short time Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department. hold onto someone/something hold firmly using your hands or arms Hold onto your hat because it's very windy outside. hold someone/somethingup rob A man in a black mask held the bank up this morning. keep on doing something continue doing Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil. keep something from someone not tell We kept our relationship from our parents for two years. keep someone/something out stop from entering Try to keep the wet dog out of the living room. keep something up continue at the same rate If you keep those results up you will get into a great college. let someone down fail to support or help, disappoint I need you to be on time. Don't let me down this time. let someone in allow to enter Can you let the cat in before you go to school? look after someone/something take care of I have to look after my sick grandmother. look down on someone think less of, consider inferior Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me. look for someone/something try to find I'm looking for a red dress for the wedding. look forward to something be excited about the future I'm looking forward to the Christmas break. look into something investigate We are going to look into the price of snowboards today. look out be careful, vigilant, and take notice Look out! That car's going to hit you! look out for someone/something be especially vigilant for Don't forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail. look something over check, examine Can you look over my essay for spelling mistakes? look something up search and find information in a reference book or database We can look her phone number up on the Internet. look up to someone have a lot of respect for My little sister has always looked up to me. make something up invent, lie about something Josie made up a story about about why we were late. make up forgive each other We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast. make someone up apply cosmetics to My sisters made me up for my graduation party. mix something up confuse two or more things I mixed up the twins' names again! pass away die His uncle passed away last night after a long illness. pass out faint It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out. pass something out give the same thing to many people The professor passed the textbooks out before class. pass something up decline (usually something good) I passed up the job because I am afraid of change. pay someone back return owed money Thanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay you back on Friday. pay for something be punished for doing something bad That bully will pay for being mean to my little brother. pick something out choose I picked out three sweaters for you to try on. point someone/something out indicate with your finger I'll point my boyfriend out when he runs by. put something down put what you are holding on a surface or floor You can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter. put someone down insult, make someone feel stupid The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short. put something off postpone We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane. put something out extinguish The neighbours put the fire out before the firemen arrived. put something together assemble I have to put the crib together before the baby arrives. put up with someone/something tolerate I don't think I can put up with three small children in the car. put something on put clothing/accessories on your body Don't forget to put on your new earrings for the party. run into someone/something meet unexpectedly I ran into an old school-friend at the mall. run over someone/something drive a vehicle over a person or thing I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway. run over/through something rehearse, review Let's run over/through these lines one more time before the show. run away leave unexpectedly, escape The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days. run out have none left We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap. send something back return (usually by mail) My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp. set something up arrange, organize Our boss set a meeting up with the president of the company. set someone up trick, trap The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera. shop around compare prices I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots. show off act extra special for people watching (usually boastfully) He always shows off on his skateboard sleep over stay somewhere for the night (informal) You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home. sort something out organize, resolve a problem We need to sort the bills out before the first of the month. stick to something continue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thing You will lose weight if you stick to the diet. switch something off stop the energy flow, turn off The light's too bright. Could you switch it off. switch something on start the energy flow, turn on We heard the news as soon as we switched on the car radio. take after someone resemble a family member I take after my mother. We are both impatient. take something apart purposely break into pieces He took the car brakes apart and found the problem. take something back return an item I have to take our new TV back because it doesn't work. take off start to fly My plane takes off in five minutes. take something off remove something (usually clothing) Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake! take something out remove from a place or thing Can you take the garbage out to the street for me? take someone out pay for someone to go somewhere with you My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie. tear something up rip into pieces I tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and gave them back to him. think back remember (often + to, sometimes + on) When I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder. think something over consider I'll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision. throw something away dispose of We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery. turn something down decrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc) Please turn the TV down while the guests are here. turn something down refuse I turned the job down because I don't want to move. turn something off stop the energy flow, switch off Your mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner. turn something on start the energy, switch on It's too dark in here. Let's turn some lights on. turn something up increase the volume or strength (heat, light etc) Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song. turn up appear suddenly Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood. try something on sample clothing I'm going to try these jeans on, but I don't think they will fit. try something out test I am going to try this new brand of detergent out. use something up finish the supply The kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more. wake up stop sleeping We have to wake up early for work on Monday. warm someone/something up increase the temperature You can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace. warm up prepare body for exercise I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run. wear off fade away Most of my make-up wore off before I got to the party. work out exercise I work out at the gym three times a week. work out be successful Our plan worked out fine. work something out make a calculation We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.
صفت كلمه اي است كه اسم را توصيف مي كند و در انگليسي همواره قبل از اسم يا بعد از افعال to be بكار مي رود.
صفات توصيفي به چهار دسته تقسيم مي شوند.
1- صفات ساده: چنانچه بخواهيم كسي يا چيزي را بدون مقايسه با ديگران توصيف كنيم از صـــفات ساده استفاده مي كنيم.
[old – fat – young – beautiful – expensive – interesting]
He is an old man.
I have a beautiful garden.
2- صفات همپايه: چنانچه دو نفر يا دو چيز در يك صفت مشترك باشند بگونه اي كه به يك اندازه از آن صفت برخوردار باشند، در اين حالت از صفت همپايه استفاده مي شود.
چنانچه صفت ساده را بين دو as قرار دهيم صفت همپايه بوجود مي آيد.
[as old as – as fat as – as young as – as beautiful as – as expensive as]
He is as old as Ali.
My garden is as beautiful as your garden.
3- صفات تفضيلي: چنانچه قصد مقايسه دو نفر يا دو چيز را داشته باشيم بگونه اي كه يكـــي از آنها در آن صفت برتر از ديگري باشد ، در اين حالت از صفت تفضيلي استفاده مي كنيم.
طرز ساختن صفت تفضيلي
الف) چنانچه صفت يك بخشي باشد، با اضافه كردن پسوند er به آخر صفت، آنرا تفضيلي مي كنيم.
صفت تفضيليer = + صفت يك بخشي
[older – fatter – younger – longer – taller – bigger]
He is older than Ali.
I am taller than you.
ب) چنانچه صفت چند بخشي باشد، با اضافه كردن more به ابتداي صفت آنرا تفضيلي مي كنيم .
صفت تفضيلي = صفت چند بخشي + more
[more beautiful – more expensive – more interesting]
My garden is more beautiful than your garden.
This car is more expensive than that car.
تذكر: علامت صفت تفضيلي در جمله كلمه than به معني (از - نسبت به) مي با شد.
4- صفات عالي: چنانچه قصد مقايسه يك نفر يا يك چيز را با افرادي يا چيزهايي داشته باشيم بــه گونه اي كه بخواهيم بگوييم آن يك نفر يا يك چيز در يك صفت از ديگران برتر است ، در اين حالت از صفت عالي استفاده مي كنيم .
طرز ساختن صفات عالي
الف) چنانچه صفت ساده يك بخشي باشد، با اضافه كردن پسوند est به آخر صفت، آنرا عالــــــي ميكنيم.
صفت عالي = est + صفت يك بخشي
[oldest – fattest – youngest]
He is the oldest man in his family.
Ali is the youngest boy in his class.
ب) چنانچه صفت ساده چند بخشي باشد، با اضافه كردن most به ابتداي صفت، آنرا عالي مي كنيم.
صفت عالي = صفت چند بخشي + the most
[most beautiful – most expensive – most interesting]
My garden is the most beautiful in the city.
تذكر1 : علامت صفت عالي در جمله كلمه in به معني (در) مي باشد .
تذكر2 : قبل از صفات عالي هميشه حرف تعريف the بكار مي رود .
تذكر3 : صفات دو بخشي مختوم به y مانند يك بخشي ها تفضيلي و عالي مي شوند با اين تفاوت كــه هنگام افزودن er و est به آخرشان ، y به i تبديل مي شود .
heavy + er = heavier
heavy + est = heaviest
تذكر4 : بعضي از صفات از قوانين فوق پيروي نمي كنند . و ما مي بايست شكل تفضيلي و عالي آنــها را حفظ كنيم.
گزينه صحيح را مشخص كنيد.
1. Mina is as (busy – busier – busiest) as her brother.
2. We are as (younger – younger than – young as) our friends.
3. Your library has (the most – many – more) books than our library.
4. The cartoon was (better – good – best) than the film.
5. Iran is the (most important – more important –important) country in Asia.
6. Mr Irani is (tall – taller – as tall as) Mr Tehrani.
7. Ali’s car is (expensive – more expensive – the most expensive) than Reza’s.
he, she, it
اگر چه اين ضماير را ضماير مفعولي ميناميم، اما آنها به جز در جاي مفعول در هر جاي ديگري هم ميتوانند قرار بگيرند، مثلاً بعد از فعل يا بعد از يک حرف اضافه:
· Our teacher was angry with us. (معلممان از دست ما عصباني بود.)
· Give me a ring tomorrow. (فردا به من زنگ بزن.)
· When he comes in, please tell him I phoned.
(هر وقت آمد، لطفاً به او بگوييد که من زنگ زدم.)
· I'm older than you. (من از تو بزرگترم.)
· 'I'm hungry.' 'Me too.' («من گرسنهام.» «من هم همينطور.»)
ضماير ملكي و صفات ملكي نشان ميدهند که چه چيزي به چه کسي تعلق دارد.
توجه داشته باشيد که صفات ملکي هميشه قبل از يک اسم ميآيند (به همين دليل صفت ناميده ميشوند) ولي ضمير ملکي جانشين صفت ملکي+ اسم ميشود و ميتواند به تنهايي به عنوان فاعل، مفعول و ... قرار بگيرد (به همين دليل ضمير ناميده ميشود).
· This is my book. (اين كتاب من است.)
This book is mine. (اين کتاب مال من است.)
· This is her purse. (اين کيف اوست.)
This is hers. (اين مال اوست.)
· Are those your pens? No, these are his. (ضمير ملکي)
کلماتي که به -self و -selves ختم ميشوند ضماير انعکاسي ناميده ميشوند و عبارتند از:
توجه داشته باشيد که در ضماير انعکاسي عمل به فاعل جمله برميگردد و در واقع مفعول همان فاعل است:
· He cut himself. (خودش را زخمي کرد.)
· You should be ashamed of yourself. (بايد از خودت خجالت بکشي.)
· Help yourselves. (از خودتان پذيرايي کنيد. )
· We blame ourselves. (ما خودمان را مقصر ميدانيم.)
از ضماير انعکاسي ميتوان براي تأکيد روي يک اسم، ضمير يا عبارت اسمي استفاده کرد که در اين حالت بعد از آنها در جمله قرار ميگيرند:
· I can do it myself. (من خودم ميتوانم اين کار را انجام دهم.)
· We can repair the roof ourselves.
(ما ميتوانيم خودمان سقف را تعمير کنيم.)
· The film itself wasn't very good but I liked the music.
(خود فيلم خيلي خوب نبود ولي از موسيقي آن خوشم آمد.)
1- ضماير اشارهاي، شامل: these، that، this و those
· Is this your T-shirt?
2- ضماير نسبي، شامل: when ،whom ،whose ،who ،that ،which و where
· The school that I went to is in the centre of the city.
3- ضماير پرسشي، شامل: when، where، why، what، who و whatever
· What time is it?
4- ضماير دوطرفه، شامل: each other و one another
· They love each other.
5- ضماير نامعين، شامل: none، nobody، nothing، someone، somebody، something، anyone، anybody، anything و no one
· Nobody knew what to do.